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The FAQ section answers all your questions, whether they are related to the Digital Certificates, their usage, applications, Certifying Authorities or any technical question you may have. If this section doesn't answer your questions please feel free to contact our Helpdesk +91-079-26857316 / 17 / 18 Email : support@ncodesolutions.com
 
       • What is a Certifying Authority?
       • Who can be a Certifying Authority (CA)?
       • What is a Subordinate CA (Sub CA)?
       • What is a Registration Authority (RA)?
       • What is a Local Registration Authority (LRA)?
       • Where can I locate the (n)Code Solutions LRA nearest to my place?
       • What are Certificate Policies (CP)?
       • What is a Certification Practice Statement (CPS)?
       • What is a Digital Signature?
       • Are Digital Signatures legally valid in India?
       • What is a Digital Certificate?
       • What is the relationship between public keys and Digital Certificates?
       • Is there any difference between Digital Certificate and Digital Signature
       • Why do I need a Digital Certificates?
       • Where can I use Digital Certificates?
       • How does a Digital Certificate work?
       • What are the different types/classes of Digital Certificates provided by (n)Code Solutions?
       • What is the validity period of the (n)Code Solutions' Digital Certificates?
       • How much do the different (n)Code Solutions' Digital Certificates cost?
       • What payment mechanisms does (n)Code Solutions accept?
       • Can some one else purchase and utilize a Digital Certificate for me or on my behalf?
       • How can I apply for a Digital Certificate?
       • What are the different steps in processing an application for a Digital Certificate?
       • Can I use an accent, circumflex or any other international character in my enrollment information?
       • Can I send my application request for Digital Certificate through mail?
       • Can I be sure that my confidential information will not be misused during enrollment for obtaining a Digital
         Certificate?
       • I have submitted my application for Digital Certificate, but now I have decided to cancel my request. Will I get a
         refund?
       • What is the reason for refusal of my request for a Digital Certificate?
       • What does "Relying Party" mean?
       • What is Subscriber Agreement?
       • What is Certificate Issuance?
       • Can a person have two Digital Certificates; say one for office and other for personal use?
       • What actually happens when I digitally sign any transaction?
       • What is the difference between signing and encrypting e-mail?
       • Can I send secure e-mail to someone who does not have a Digital Certificate?
       • How do I know if the e-mail I receive is signed or encrypted?
       • I have a new e-mail address. Can I update my Digital Certificate?
       • I want to attach my digital signature for my email account at yahoo.com, how can I?
       • Can I use one Digital Certificate for multiple email addresses?
       • I have downloaded Digital Certificate . Will it get automatically connected to "Outlook"?
       • I have taken Digital Certificate, but when my client opened my email in yahoo.com he was not able to verify my
         Digital Certificate but he got smime.p7m file with it, what is it?
       • How can one digitally sign email using Outlook Web Access service provided by Microsoft Exchange Server,
         when that person is in remote places?
       • My name has changed. Can I keep using the same Digital Certificate issued by (n)Code Solutions?
       • What is the scope of using digital signatures in the e-tendering system?
       • Can digital signature be employed in a wireless network?
       • I have purchased a Digital Certificate as individual. Can I use it for my website?
       • Is the information contained in my Digital Certificate automatically sent to the websites I visit?
       • Which Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) I have to select while downloading a Digital Certificate?
       • Why do I need to validate a Digital Certificate?
       • What are the various validation mechanisms available?
       • What is a CRL?
       • What is CRL Validation?
       • What is Certificate Revocation?
       • How do I revoke my current Digital Certificate, and how long does it take?
       • What is the procedure to initiate revocation request?
       • Can some one else revoke my certificate?
       • Whom should I inform if my private key is compromised? What charges do I have to pay for revocation of my
         Digital Certificate?
       • Where can I check whether the (n)Code Solutions Digital Certificate is revoked or not?
       • I did not renew the certificate within the expiry date, what should I do now?
       • How do I renew my certificate?
       • Why should I save a backup copy of my Digital Certificate?
       • Will unplugging my computer disrupt my Digital Certificate?
       • How do I protect my Digital Certificate/Private key?
       • What if some one copies my Digital Certificate?
       • What does my Private Key look like?
       • How is my Digital Certificate's private key protected?
       • I forgot my private key password. Can someone change it for me?
       • I accidentally deleted my Digital Certificate from my PC's hard disk drive. What should I do now?
       • My PC's hard disk drive crashed. Is there any way to recover my Digital Certificate?
       • My computer was stolen. What should I do to protect my Digital Certificate?
       • Can more than one person store their Digital Certificate on a computer?
       • How do I transfer my Digital Certificate to a new computer?
       • I deleted Microsoft Internet Explorer and installed the latest version. How do I reinstall my Digital Certificate?
       • I deleted Netscape Navigator and installed the latest version. How do I reinstall my Digital Certificate?
       • Can I use my Digital Certificate with more than one browser or e-mail application (for example, with Netscape
         Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer)?
       • I deleted my old Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator and installed the latest version. How do I
         reinstall my Digital Certificate?
       • [Master Password] is asked when I am proceeding in the certificate acquisition for Netscape. Is Challenge Code
         and Master Password the same?
       • I checked my Digital Certificate, and the following message appeared :" This certificate is not trusted.". What
         does this mean?
       • What is SSL (secure socket layer) and how does it work?
       • I want to utilize one web server (SSL) certificate for more than one website, can I?
       • What should users verify before trusting an SSL certified website?
       • What is PKI?
       • What is cryptography?
       • What is secret key cryptography?
       • What is Public Key Cryptography?
       • What is authentication?
       • What is encryption?
       • What is decryption?
       • What is non-repudiation?
       • What is Private Key?
       • What is Smart Card?
       • What is an e-token?
       • What is key agreement protocol?
       • What is a digital envelope?
       • What is a hash algorithm?
       • What is digital time stamping?
       • What are Public Key Cryptography Standards?
       • What is Cryptographic Service Provider?
       • What is a Distinguished Name (DNs)?
       • What is SSL (secure socket layer)?
       • What is MIME?
       • What is S/MIME?
       • What do X.509 and X.500 mean?
       • What is Certificate Validation Mechanism?
       • What is Certificate Validation?
       • What is OCSP Validation?
       • What is CAM?
  Applications and usage of Digital Certificates:
 
  a) Can a person have two Digital Certificates; say one for office and other for personal use?
    Yes, you can possess two different Digital Certificates for different purposes but at the same time you should have two different email addresses for two different Digital Certificates.
     
  b) What actually happens when I digitally sign any transaction?
    When you sign any transaction, you are using your private key. When the recipient receives the information with your certificate, he can verify the information using the public key on your certificate.

Signing a transaction:
Verifies the user's identity;
Establishes his / her credentials to perform the transaction;
Protects the integrity of the information itself (it cannot be changed once the user has signed it).

Once the user has digitally signed a transaction he cannot deny that he has sent the information. This is referred to as non-repudiation.
     
  c) What is the difference between signing and encrypting e-mail?
   

Signing an e-mail message means you attach your Digital Certificate to it so that the recipient knows it came from you and was not tampered within route. Signing authenticates a message, but it does not provide protection against third party monitoring.

Encrypting a message means you "scramble" it in a way that only the intended recipient can "unscramble" it, which safeguards against monitoring. In order to send a signed message, you must have a Digital Certificate. Encrypting a message requires that you have the recipient's Digital Certificate.

     
  d) Can I send secure e-mail to someone who does not have a Digital Certificate?
    You can digitally sign any e-mail as long as the recipient has an e-mail application, which supports S/MIME. You cannot encrypt a message, however, unless you have the recipient's Digital Certificate.
     
  e) How do I know if the e-mail I receive is signed or encrypted?
   

Netscape Communicator Users: Any signed e-mail you receive will have a prominent icon in the upper-right corner of the message saying "signed" or "encrypted" or both. If you want more information about the security of a message, click on the Security button (the one that looks like a padlock) above the message.

Microsoft Internet Explorer Users: Signed messages will be shown in the inbox (or any other folder) with a red ribbon on the envelope icon. Encrypted messages will show a padlock on the envelope icon.

     
  f) I have a new e-mail address. Can I update my Digital Certificate?
    Once a Digital Certificate has been issued it cannot be changed. Your Digital Certificate specifically verifies that your public key is bound to your stated e-mail address, so when you change addresses you need to request a new Digital Certificate. If you would like to enroll at this time, please visit the https://www.ncodesolutions.com/
     
  g) I want to attach my digital signature for my email account at yahoo.com, how can I?
    Unfortunately Web-based mail like Yahoo, Hotmail, Incredimail, MSN or AOL is not S/MIME compatible and so cannot be used with a Personal Email Certificate.

In order to secure your mail you must setup your mail and install the personal certificate in a mail client that can support S/MIME like Outlook 2000, Outlook Express or Netscape Messenger.

Alternatively you would have to configure your email client on your PC (i.e. Outlook Express) to access your Web based account with the correct username, password and POP settings.
     
  h) Can I use one Digital Certificate for multiple email addresses?
    No you cannot. At this stage, we can issue them, but they will not be recognized by most email software. So you should request a certificate for each email address separately. You can have multiple E-mail addresses attached to an account, but when you request each certificate you will be asked which E-mail address you want the certificate attached to.
     
  i) I have downloaded Digital Certificate . Will it get automatically connected to "Outlook"?
    After downloading and importing Digital Certificate in your web browser, you are ready to use your Digital Certificate with web browser but for using with your email client software you will have to configure necessary settings. To get descriptive help for configuring email client software for using digital signatures, please visit following link: - http://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/q168/7/26.asp
     
  j) I have taken Digital Certificate, but when my client opened my email in yahoo.com he was not able to verify my Digital Certificate but he got smime.p7m file with it, what is it?
   

Unfortunately Web-based mail like Yahoo, Hotmail are not S/MIME compatible and so cannot be used with a Personal Email Certificate. Email is secured by using a combination of two functions: signing and/or encrypting the original mail. Each is represented at the recipient end in the form of attachments.

A signed mail has an attachment called smime.p7s (containing the sender's signature).
An encrypted mail has an attachment called smime.p7m (containing the encrypted message).

Therefore, to verify a signed and/or read an encrypted message, your client need a mail reader compatible with S/MIME which will interpret the attachments, otherwise your client will see the message with all these attachments described above.

     
  k) How can one digitally sign email using Outlook Web Access service provided by Microsoft Exchange Server, when that person is in remote places?
    For this Assure Messaging Solution has to be integrated with the mail server to provide digital signature based access control.
     
  l) My name has changed. Can I keep using the same Digital Certificate issued by (n)Code Solutions?
    Sorry, but you cannot. Your Digital Certificate needs to be revoked when your name changes. You can inform about this to our helpdesk at support@ncodesolutions.com so that we can initiate the process related to revocation of your Digital Certificate to prevent any misuse
     
  m) What is the scope of using digital signatures in the e-tendering system?
    Yes, you can digital signatures for e-tendering. Only following transactions/instruments are not recognized as per the IT Act
Negotiable Instrument as defined in section 13 of 26 of 1881. The Negotiable Instrument Act, 1881.
A power-of-attorney.
Succession Act/Will.
Transfer of Immovable property.
Trust
     
  n) Can digital signature be employed in a wireless network?
    Yes, Digital Signature can be employed in wireless network.
   
  o) I have purchased a Digital Certificate as individual. Can I use it for my website?
    Sorry, you cannot use Digital Certificate which you have purchased as an individual for your website. For authenticating your website you will be in need of a different Digital Certificate which is called as SSL (secure socket layer) certificate.

A Digital Certificate, which you have purchased as an individual will be used for sending and receiving secure email and web-based transactions through web browsers. While if you want to use Digital Certificate for your website, you will have to purchase Digital Certificate specially based for the functionality of web based transactions.
     
  p) Is the information contained in my Digital Certificate automatically sent to the websites I visit?
   

No, you control the presentation of your Digital Certificates to websites through the settings in your web browser.

Netscape Communication Users: You can choose whether or not your Digital Certificate is automatically sent to the web sites you access, and which Digital Certificate (if you have more than one installed) are used. To change your Digital Certificate usage settings:

1. Click on the Security Preferences button (the one that looks like a padlock) on the Main toolbar.
2. Click Navigator from the menu on the left.
3. From the "Default Certificate to present to websites" pop-up list, select the Digital Certificate to use automatically, or choose one of the other options: "Ask every time" (the default setting) or "Let Navigator choose."

Microsoft Internet Explorer Users: Internet Explorer always asks you whether to send Digital Certificate information to any website requesting it, and allows you to choose which Digital Certificate to use (if you have more than one installed)

     
  q) Which Cryptographic Service Provider (CSP) I have to select while downloading a Digital Certificate?
   

During registration process, if you are using Internet Explorer it will display a list of different cryptographic service providers, but the first highlighted cryptographic service provider will be the default one, which is present in your computer. So when you reach at this stage, please select the highlighted one.

If you are using Netscape Navigator, 0nline registration wizard will not ask you for cryptographic service provider but for the key length. Please select key length of 1024.

     
  r) Why do I need to validate a Digital Certificate?
    When a document or transaction is signed using a Digital Certificate, it serves as a means of identifying the person who signed since a certificate and vouches for the owner's identity or association with a particular organization. It is important to validate a certificate to ensure that it has not been changed, revoked or has not expired.
     
  s) What are the various validation mechanisms available?
    You can validate a certificate using CRL, OCSP or CAM.
     
  t) What is a CRL?
    A list of certificates that have been revoked by the Certifying Authority. The CRL contains the certificates, which are no longer valid.
     
  u) What is CRL Validation?
   

Certificate Authorities publish Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs), which as the name suggests are lists of revoked or cancelled certificates. These CRLs are published at regular intervals and contain periodic updates to the status of certificates. Through Certificate Revocation List, the (n)Code Solutions CA notifies users that a particular certificate is no longer valid.

In CRL based validation, the application downloads the latest CRL (or refers to a cached CRL) and checks for certificate validity against this list.

 
 
 
(n)Code will now issue Digital Signature Certificates as per New Interoperability Guidelines ver 2.5 | Notifications by office of CCA for issuance of digital signature certificate :: Notification 1, Notification 2, Notification 3 .
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Information on Interoperability Guidelines Updated : 20/03/2014 ©2014 (n)Code Solutions. All Rights Reserved